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Common Cold

cover your cough tissue line drawingA cold usually includes a runny  nose, sore throat, sneezing, and coughing. These symptoms can last for up to  two weeks.

Causes

Common Cold

  • Over 200 viruses can cause the common cold
  • The  rhinovirus is the most common type of virus that causes colds

Runny Nose during a Cold

  1. germs that cause colds first infect the nose and sinuses, the nose makes clear  mucus. This helps wash the germs from the nose and sinuses. After two or three  days, the body's immune cells fight back, changing the mucus to a white or  yellow color. As the bacteria that live in the nose grow back, they may also be  found in the mucus, which changes the mucus to a greenish color. This is normal  and does not mean you or your child needs antibiotics.

Signs and Symptoms of the Common Cold

  • Sneezing
  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Sore throat
  • Coughing
  • Watery eyes
  • Mild headache
  • Mild body aches

See a Healthcare Provider if You or Your Child has:

  • Temperature higher than 100.4° F 
  • Symptoms that last more than 10 days
  • Symptoms that are not relieved by over-the-counter medicines

Your healthcare provider can determine if you or your child has a cold and  can recommend symptomatic therapy. If your child is younger than three months  of age and has a fever, it’s important to always call your healthcare provider right away.

Antibiotics are Needed When…

 

Antibiotics are needed only if  your healthcare provider tells you that you or your child has a bacterial infection. Your healthcare provider may prescribe other medicine or give tips to help with  a cold's symptoms, but antibiotics are not needed to treat a cold or runny  nose.

Antibiotics Will Not Help if…

 

Since the common cold is caused  by a virus, antibiotics will not help it get better.  A runny nose or cold almost always gets  better on its own, so it is better to wait and take antibiotics only when they  are needed. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed can be harmful.

 

Each time you or your child takes  an antibiotic, the bacteria that normally live in your body (on the skin, in  the intestine, in the mouth and nose, etc.) are more likely to become resistant  to antibiotics. Common antibiotics cannot kill infections caused by these resistant  germs. Learn more about antibiotic resistance.

How to Feel Better

 

Rest, over-the-counter medicines  and other self-care methods may help you or your child feel better. For more  information about symptomatic relief, visit the Symptom Relief or talk to your  healthcare provider or pharmacist.  Remember, always use over-the-counter products as  directed.  Many over-the-counter products  are not recommended for children younger than certain ages.

Preventing the Common Cold

 

  • Practice good hand hygiene
  • Avoid close contact with people who have colds or other upper respiratory infections

 

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